Preparation for laboratory tests

Dear patients, we give recommendations below for preparation for some types of laboratory tests. Observance of recommendations positively affects the accuracy and precision of the results.

Please note that in order to fulfil laboratory tests, urine and stool shall be brought to clinical and diagnostic laboratory in plastic containers.

In order to improve services rendered, laboratory test technologies may be changed. Please, contact us by phone 70-80-61 or visit our Web-site to specify reference values and results release form in the registration office of laboratory.  


1. BLOOD:

The key factors which may affect the result

Medicines: influence of medicines on the results of laboratory tests is diversified and not always predictable. 

Food intake: direct influence due to absorption of food components and indirect influence due to hormone level shift in response to food intake; influence of sample opacity related to increased content of fat particles is possible.  

Physical and emotional overworks result in hormonal and biochemical changes. 

Alcohol has acute and chronical effects on many processes of metabolism. 

Smoking changes secretion of some biologically active substances.  

Physiotherapeutic procedures, instrumental examinations before medical tests may result in temporary changes in some laboratory parameters. 

Phase of menstrual cycle of women is very important for some hormonal tests; it is recommended to consult a doctor before tests on optimal days for sampling for determination of level of FSH, LH, prolactin, progesterone, estradiol, and androstenedione. 

Time of day for blood taking: there are daily rhythms of human activity and, correspondently, daily variations of many hormonal and biochemical parameters more or less expressed for different indices; reference values are limits of the “norm” and usually show statistical data obtained under standard conditions, i.e. blood taking in the morning. Thus, blood for ACTH and cortisol shall be taken from 08:00 to 08:30.

General rules of preparation for laboratory tests shall be observed for biochemical, hormonal, hematological tests, complete immunological tests; results depend on physiological condition of patients.

  • As far as possible, it is recommended to take a blood test in the morning from 08:00 to 10:00, in the fasted state (not less than 8 hours and no more than 14 hours of bowel rest, drinking – water in usual regime) and avoid overeating the day before blood tests.
  • If you take some medicines, you should consult your doctor as to the reasonability of tests during the period of medicine taking or as to the possibility to cancel medicines before tests; duration of cancellation shall be determined by the period of medicine excretion from blood.
  • Alcohol shall be excluded the day before laboratory tests.
  • Smoking shall be avoided at least during 1 hour before laboratory tests.
  • Exclude physical and emotional stresses the day before laboratory tests.
  • It is recommended to take a rest (take a seat) for 10-20 minutes after arrival to the hospital and before blood tests.
  • It is not recommended to conduct blood tests immediately after physiotherapeutic procedures, instrumental examinations and other medical procedures. It is recommended to postpone laboratory analysis for some days after several medical procedures (for example, biopsy of prostate gland before PSA test).
  • For the control of laboratory parameter over time, it is recommended to make repeated tests under the similar conditions: in the same laboratory, take blood test at the same time of the day, etc.  

Minimum requirements: infectious tests, urgent tests – preferably in the fasted state (4-6 hours).

Food diet, special requirements: it is recommended to take blood tests strictly in the fasted state, after 12-14 hours of bowel rest to determine parameters of lipidic profile (cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, apo A1, apo B, VLDL, lipoprotein A; glucose tolerance test shall be taken in the morning in the fasted state after not less than 8 and no more than 14 hours of bowel rest. 

Time of the day for blood tests - recommendations

Symbols:

“+” means recommended; 
“+/-“ means acceptable with restrictions, daily rhythm shall be taken into consideration for repeat studies and breakpoints of results as to reference limits; 
“-“ means not recommended.

Name of test

8.00-11.00

12.00-17.00

18.00-8.00

Hormonal tests

+

+/-

-

Bone exchange (osteoporosis) markers

+

+/-

-

Biochemical tests

+

+/-

+/- (urgent)

Vitamins

+

+/-

-

Immunological profiles,

Interferon status

+

-

-

Cancer-specific markers

+

+

+

Autoimmune markers

+

+

+

Allergy tests

+

+

+

Complete blood count, coagulology

+

+

+/- (urgent)

Infections

+

+

+

Complete blood count, coagulology

+

+

+/-

Genetic tests

+

+

+

Microelements

+

+

+/-

Hormonal tests




ACTH

08:00 to 08:30

-

-

Cortisol

08:00 to 08:30

-

-

Parathyroid hormone

09:00 to 10:00

+/-

-

Calcitonin

+

+/-

-

Aldosterone

+

+/-

-

Renin

+

+/-

-

Catecholamines

+

+/-

-

Prolactin

+

+/-

-

Thyroid panel

+

+/-

-

Insulin, С-Peptide

+

Depending on the goal

-

FSH, LH

+

+/-

-

Estradiol, progesterone, 
testosterone (female) SHBG

+

+/-

-

17-ОН-progesterone, 
androstenedione  

+

+/-

-

DEA-S

+

+/-

-

Beta-HCG (pregnancy test)

+

+

+

Testosterone, inhibin 
(male)

+

+/-

-

PRISCA

+

+

-

Erythropoietin

+

+/-

-

Other hormones

+

+/-

-

Taking infectious tests, it should be noted that any patient may have a negative result depending on period of infection and state of immune system. But, however, a negative result does not fully exclude any infection. In case of doubt, it is recommended to take a repeated test.

Remember! Different test methods and different unit measures may be used in different laboratories. It is recommended to take tests in the same laboratory and at the same time in order to assess your results correctly and ensure the acceptability of results. Comparison of such tests will be more correct.   


2. URINE:

Urine collection in container for common analysis

It is not recommended to eat vegetables and fruits which may change the colour of urine (beet, carrot, etc.) or take diuretics the day before analysis.      

It is recommended to make hygienic procedures of genitals before urine collection. It is not recommended for women to make urine analysis during menstruation. Collect approximately 50 ml of morning urine into container. It is recommended to pore a small quantity of morning urine into lavatory bowl (the first 1-2 seconds) for the correct analysis, then, not stopping urination, put container for urine collection and collect approximately 50 ml of urine.

Close container tightly immediately after urine collection.

Container with urine shall be brought to the laboratory from 08:00 to 10:00 (according to the schedule of biomaterial acceptance). If there is no possibility to bring urine to the laboratory immediately, container with urine shall be kept at a temperature of +2…+8°C.

Collection of daily urine

Urine is collected during a day. The first morning portion of urine shall be removed. All next portions of urine extracted during the day, night and morning portion of the next day shall be collected in one container which shall be kept in refrigerator (+4…+8°C) during the entire period of collection (this is a required condition because the content of analyte is significantly reduced at the room temperature).  

Content of container shall be brought to the laboratory from 08:00 to 10:00 (according to the schedule of biomaterial acceptance) after completion of urine collection. Height and weight of patient shall be indicated in the referral form.     

Urine sample for deoxypyridinoline determination is taken until 10:00 (the first and the second portion of morning urine).

Urine collection for urine culture (with determination of antibiotic sensitivity)    

The required hygienic procedure shall be done for urine collection. Open a lid. Collect approximately 50 ml of morning urine into container. A small quantity of urine shall be poured into lavatory bowl (the first 1-2 seconds) for the correct analysis and, not stopping urination, put container for urine collection and collect approximately 50 ml of urine.      

Remember that attending physician only can make an optimal program of laboratory test and evaluate the results of analyses, because only attending physician has a possibility to observe the condition of a patient and explain the necessity of any given analyses.  


3. STOOL:

Material (stool) for intestinal dysbacteriosis, stool test, helminth egg and protozoan test shall be collected before the beginning of treatment with antimicrobial and chemical-therapeutic drugs. Fresh extracted stool only shall be collected for analysis.

Laxative drugs, castor oil and Vaseline oil, rectal suppositories shall be cancelled 3-4 days prior to the analysis. Stool received after clyster and after barium intake (in case of X-ray examination) shall not be used for analysis.     

Relieve yourself in lavatory bowl before stool collection; by natural defecation collect faeces from the last portion of stool into a clean dish (avoid urine in stool). The dish shall be preliminary treated by washing with boiled water several times and rinsing with boiling water. 

Stool shall be collected into a clean, single-use container with screw cap and spoon in the quantity of no more than 1/3 of container capacity. Material shall be brought to the laboratory no later than 3 hours after stool collection according to the schedule of biological material acceptance (from 08:00 to 10:0). Preferably, the material shall be kept in cold place within the aforesaid period of time (at the temperature of +2 +8°C. Prevent from freezing!).

Your surname, initials, date of birth, date and time of material collection shall be marked on the container and such marking shall be legible. Diagnosis, date of disease beginning and information on antibiotic intake shall be indicated in the referral form. Sterility shall be observed upon stool collection. As far as possible, stool for analysis shall be collected before prescription of antibiotics (if it is not possible, only in 12 hours after cancellation of antibiotics).  

Mandatory conditions to be observed: 

  • prevent from freezing; 
  • prevent from long-term storage (more than 3 hours); 
  • no transport media are suitable; 
  • container must be tightly closed; 
  • biomaterial collected the day before shall not be used for the analysis.


4. SPERMOGRAM

Rules of biomaterial collection and preparation for ejaculate analysis

Important! Biomaterial shall be submitted after not less than 48-hour and no more than 7-day of sexual abstinence. It is forbidden to take alcohol, medicines (exclusion: vital and essential drugs prescribed by the doctor for chronic use shall not be cancelled), visit sauna or bath, be exposed to UHF during this period. In case of repeated analysis, it is recommended to determine the similar periods of sexual abstinence to reduce variations in the results obtained.    

1. Analysis shall begin, not later than 1 hour after receipt of biological material.  

2. Ejaculate shall be obtained by masturbation. Ejaculate shall be collected into a plastic container. It is forbidden to use condom for sperm collection (substances used for condom production may affect the mobility degree of sperm cells).    

3. Surname, date and exact time of ejaculate production shall be marked on the container.    

4. Sperm shall be kept at a temperature of +27…+37°C during transportation. 

5. If masturbation was successful, but ejaculate was not obtained (chronic male disorder when presence of retrograde ejaculation must be identified, i.e., regurgitation of ejaculate into the urinary bladder), it is necessary to relieve yourself immediately and bring all obtained urine for the analysis. In this case, analysis is registered not as “Spermogram”, but as “Common urine analysis” with the note “Specify presence or absence of sperm cells in urine” in the referral form.


5. GASTROPANEL

Preparation for examination procedure

  • Examination shall be done in the fasted state (in the morning after 8-12 hours of night bowel rest). 
  • It is required to refrain from smoking during 4 hours before examination. 
  • It is permitted to conduct the examination at the same time with taking usual patient’s medicines prescribed by doctor, except for medicines which may affect the secretion of gastric juice:

1. It is recommended to refrain from intake of medicines inhibiting acid secretion in stomach such as Ranitidine, Famotidine, NIzatidine, Pepcidin, Zantac, Nizax, Ranimex, Esofex, Losec, Lanzo, Somac, Ranixal, Ranil (and generic medicines), proton pump inhibitors (Lansoprazole, Omeprazole, Pantoprazole, Esomeprazole, Rabeprazole and others) 1 week prior to examination (after consultation with a doctor);

2. It is recommended to refrain from intake of medicines neutralizing hydrochloric acid of stomach such as antacids (Geviskon, Magnesium milk, Renni, etc.) and medicines for mucous membrane protection (Alsukral, Andapsin, Balancid, Prepulsid, Metropam, Librax, etc.) 1 day prior to examination.     

  • It is recommended to consult a doctor in advance as to the possibility of temporary cancellation of corresponding medicines. If it is impossible to cancel medicines, used medicines shall be indicated in the referral form.    
  • Stimulation test with application of protein drink shall not be conducted in patients with allergic reactions to soya, dairy products, eggs and chocolate in the past medical history, because those substances may be included into protein stimulators to be ingested by patients during the examination.

At first, blood for the so called ‘fasting sample’ is taken; then the patient is given protein drink or a glass of milk or 1 egg for making examination of stimulated gastrin-17. In 20 minutes after such protein stimulation the blood test is repeated

Test tubes are marked with patient’s personal data and the date of analysis. In addition, test tubes shall be compulsory marked with “T” – for fasting (basal) sample and “C” – for stimulated sample.   

Important! Non-observance of instructions leads to inaccurate results of examination!